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Brest Litovsk Agreement

In all respects, this agreement between Brest and Litovsk offered humiliating conditions. It saw Soviet Russia as a defeated nation and Germany as a power of conquest that claimed to be the prey of war. Lenin was in favour of the immediate signing of this agreement. He believed that only immediate peace would allow the young Bolshevik government to consolidate power in Russia. However, he was practically alone with this opinion among the Bolsheviks in the Central Committee. [7] On August 27, 1918, the Soviets and Germany signed a supplementary agreement following the Soviet rejection of Tsarist obligations, the nationalization of foreign property, and the confiscation of foreign assets. The Soviets agreed to pay six billion marks in compensation for German losses. They were extremely harsh. Russia has abandoned almost half of its European territory. Russian Poland, Lithuania and part of Latvia were ceded to Germany and Austria. Ukraine, Finland, Estonia and the rest of Latvia were transformed into independent states protected by Germany.

Bessarabia was to go to Romania and the Ottomans took the Armenian territories of the Caucasus. All Bolshevik propaganda in the ceded territories had to cease (a provision that the Bolshevik regime could soon circumvent). Russia has lost huge amounts of land with first-class farmland, eighty percent of its coal mines and half of its other industries. A follow-up agreement reached in August forced the country to pay six billion marks in reparations. The districts of Erdehan, Kars and Batum were also immediately evacuated by Russian troops. Russia will not interfere in the reorganization of the national and international relations of these districts, but will leave it to the people of these districts to carry out this reorganization in agreement with neighboring countries, especially with the Ottoman Empire. Lenin continued to work for a peace agreement, while his opponents, including Leo Trotsky, Nickolai Bukharin, Andrei Bubnow, Alexandra Kollontai, Yuri Pyatakov, Karl Radek and Moisei Uritsky, favored a “revolutionary war” against Germany. This belief was encouraged by German calls for “annexation and dismemberment of Russia.” In the ranks of the opposition was Lenin`s close friend, Inessa Armand, who had surprisingly made public her calls for the continuation of the war with Germany. The many inhabitants of popular Germany would be the ruling elite. New monarchies were created in Lithuania and in the united Baltic Duchy (which included the modern countries of Latvia and Estonia). .